First of all, if you haven’t done it yet, please take this quick quiz to find out if you’re smarter than the guy in the video below. (After you complete the quiz, you can enter to win an Xbox 360 and a Kinect.)
Now that took the quiz know how much smarter you are than John, here’s a quick review of why you shouldn’t do anything John does online.
1. Use unique, strong passwords for all of your important accounts.
John uses the same password for every account. That means if a hacker gets a hold of John’s Twitter password, that hacker would have access to every account John uses at work or at home. Creating and remembering unique, strong passwords is a must for your most important accounts. This system for creating and remembering strong passwords makes it easy.
2. Keep your computer’s software patched and protected.
You probably know which operating system you’re running. John doesn’t. He thinks it’s the one with the “windows.” A PC or a Mac running the latest versions of Windows 7 or OS X is probably as safe as any PC since the birth of the virus. However, if your OS and your applications aren’t patched you may be vulnerable to the kind of attacks John has to deal with on a daily if not hourly basis. Checking all of your applications for updates on a regular basis can be time-consuming. Our free Health Check makes it easy.
3. Realize that you’re vulnerable when you’re on an open Wi-Fi network.
When you use an open Wi-Fi network, the data you enter is only encrypted on secure pages, which start with https. Banks and credit card companies encrypt their sites however not all web email is encrypted. If you’ve ever emailed passwords or personal information, it could be accessible to a hacker. On an unsecured Wi-Fi network, you could get sidejacked by someone using a tool like Firesheep. Using the tracking data in your browser, a hacker can easily pretend she or he is you.
If you have to check your email or get on a social network and you only have open Wi-Fi, make sure you are using a secured session.
How to Secure Sessions
A virtual personal network is the best way to defend yourself from any snoopers. Most large companies insist on their employees using a VPN while doing any business over a wireless network. That’s a strategy John would never follow, but you should, especially if you make purchases or work with confidential information while on public Wi-Fi. Here are some strong VPN options for you to consider.
If you use Firefox, you can use HTTPS Everywhere by The Tor Project and the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which will encrypt your communications on several major websites.
You can secure any Twitter session by typing in an “s” after the http in the browser bar. If you click here, you’ll go to https://twitter.com and session will remain secure until you log out.
This feature is still being rolled out to some users. And it is not entirely secure.
You can activate secured browsing by logging in. Then go to Account> Account Settings> Under “Account Security”, check the box for “Browse Facebook on a secure connection (https) whenever possible”.
PLEASE NOTE: If you use an app, any Facebook app, you’ll get this warning:
PLEASE NOTE: If you use an app, any Facebook app, you’ll get a warning that you are now entering unsecured browsing.
If you continue on to unsecured browsing, your session is not unsecured and you are now vulnerable to a sidejacking attack. You will have to return to the same setting when you are done with the app to enable secured browsing again.
John was recently sidejacked by a friend who posted a hilarious Photoshop of John in the bathtub. Too bad it happened on a day when the HR department of a company that was about to hire John checked out his profile.
Login and go to the “Options” wheel in the uppermost right corner.
Select “Mail settings”.
Under “Browser connection”, select “Always use https”.
Go to https://account.live.com/ManageSSL and login if you have to.
Select “Use HTTPS automatically (please see the note above)”. And check out the note for the exceptions, of course.
4. Check to make sure a site is legitimate and secure before you make a purchase.
John will buy anything from any site. He bought his Snuggie from a website that had more pop-ups than the old AOL. Don’t be like John. Stick to online stores with good reputations. When you try out a new retailer, do a quick search for customer feedback. If you are still unsure, save yourself the trouble and money. Even if you trust a site, always check the URL of the page for two things before submitting your credit card number: 1) Is it a secured https page that will encrypt your information? 2) Am I really on the site I meant to be on? Try to use one credit card for all your online shopping and check the activity on that account often. Check out these safe shopping tips.
5. Don’t be afraid to reject or ignore a Facebook friend request.
On Facebook, wrong click and you could end up spamming your friends with something that will definitely waste their time and possibly your money. The best way to avoid becoming a victim or perpetrator of spam is to eliminate spam from your news feed. This requires you only friending people who are careful where they click. John, of course, lets spammers go on spamming as he adds more and more friends. You, however, should be careful who you add. If a friend shares some spam, inform them in a friendly way that they may have made a mistake. If it keeps happening, unfriend her or him.
Something else to remember: If you wouldn’t tell someone in person that you’re going to be out of town, don’t use Facebook to do so. If your Privacy Settings are set to “Friends of Friends”, you could be sharing your travel plans with thousands of people when you post them on Facebook. Before you post anything, ask yourself, “Would I be okay if all the friends of my friends’ friends knew this?” If your friends are anything like the average Facebook user, you could be thinking about more than a million people. (The average Facebook user has 120 friends. 120 X 120 X 120 = 1,728,000 friends you could be sharing with.)
6. Never use a password that is in the dictionary or could be guessed by a friend.
We’re back to passwords again because they can tend to be a weak link in many users’ security. And this weak link can be easily strengthened. The number of people who use “password” or their first name to secure their accounts is mind-blowing. Even John wouldn’t be that silly. It’s just as silly to use any word in the dictionary. Why? Because when a hacker uses a program to figure out your password, what do you think it tries first? Your passwords have to be unique and complex. They should also not be anything that could be guessed by a friend. If someone you know can guess your password, a stranger might be able to do the same thing by studying your Facebook profile.
7. Keep an eye out for Phishing Scams, even when you’re on your phone.
A Phishing Scam is a sneaky attempt to get you to turn over your financial data to criminals. That’s right crooks have found that Internet users, like John, will occasionally just hand over the account information needed to commit credit card fraud. All they do have to do is pretend to be a trustworthy site with official looking graphics and people fill in the forms and click submit. The best way to avoid Phishing scams is to check the URL of the webpage you are on to make certain it is on the domain of the bank or institution you think it is. Also, be skeptical of any email that contacts you asking you to change your password. If you’re ever in doubt, contact the institution directly. All of your accounts have values to a scammer, so keep in mind that you can even be phished for your Facebook account—and even when you’re on your phone. That’s why our Mobile Security blocks such scams.
8. Password protect your Wi-Fi network.
There’s plenty of good reasons to secure your home Wi-Fi network. You don’t want your neighbors to have access to private info. You don’t want strangers to slow down the connection you’re paying for. You don’t want people to use your connection to take part in illegal activities. The only reason to leave it open is if you want to give someone like John access to your digital life. Here’s how to set up a security key for your wireless network.
9. Don’t open strange email attachments (without scanning them).
The first computer security rule you probably learned was “Don’t open email attachments from strangers.” This is still true—even though John forgot it long ago. In fact, targeted attacks that use social engineering and profile their victims are becoming more advanced all the time. You should still refuse to open any attachment that you were not expecting. If you feel you must open an attachment, download it to you PC and scan it with your Internet security software first. Here’s more on how to deal with email attachments.
10. Don’t expect anyone else to protect your privacy.
Do you blame your telephone when you use it to tell someone something you shouldn’t? Then you can’t only blame Facebook when you post information that may cause you trouble. Even when you use the privacy settings correctly and keep your account under control, your information is only as secure as the people you share it with. If you need to share any information that could cause you trouble at work or could be used to answer your security questions, use private messages, email or even that old-fashion marvel the telephone. And never, under any circumstances, shout your password in public through a megaphone. John still hasn’t learned that one yet.
Which of these tips is most important? Which is John least likely to follow? Let us know in the comments.
Every time you go online, your personal privacy is at risk – it’s as simple as that. Whether you’re creating an account on a website, shopping, or just browsing, information like your email, IP address and browsing history are potential targets for interested parties. All too often, that information is sold on or sometimes even stolen without you even knowing it. And the threats to our online privacy and security are evolving. Fast. As F-Secure’s Online Protection Service Lead, Christine Bejerasco’s job is to make life online safer and more secure. “We’re basically online defenders. And when your job is to create solutions that help protect people, the criminals and attackers you’re protecting them against always step up their game. So it’s like an arms race. They come up with new ways of attacking users and our job is to outsmart them and defend our users,” Christine says. Sounds pretty dramatic, right? Well that’s because it is. While it used to be that the biggest threat to your online privacy was spam and viruses, the risks of today and tomorrow are potentially way more serious. “Right now we’re in the middle of different waves of ransomware. That’s basically malware that turns people’s files into formats they can’t use. We’ve already seen cases of companies and individual people having their systems and files hijacked for ransom. It’s serious stuff and in many cases very sad. If your online assets aren’t protected right now you should kind of feel like you’re going to bed at night with your front door not only unlocked but wide open.” Christine and her team of 11 online security superheroes (eight full-time members and three super-talented interns) are on the case in Helsinki. Here’s more on Christine and her work in her own words: Where are you from? The Philippines Where do you live and work? I live in Espoo and work at F-Secure in Ruoholahti, Helsinki. Describe your job in 160 characters or less? Online guardian who strives to give F-Secure users a worry-free online experience. One word that best describes your work? Engaging How long is a typical work day for you? There is no typical workday. It ranges from 6 – 13 hours, depending on what’s happening. What sparked your interest in online security? At the start it was just a job. As a computer science graduate, I was just looking for a job where I could do something related to my field. And then when I joined a software security company in the Philippines, I was introduced to this world of online threats and it’s really hard to leave all the excitement behind. So I’ve stayed in the industry ever since. Craziest story you’ve ever heard about online protection breach? Ashley Madison. Some people thought it was just a funny story, but it had pretty serious consequences for some of the people on that list. Does it frustrate you that so many people don’t care about protecting their online privacy? Yeah, it definitely does. But you grow to understand that people don’t value things until they lose it. It’s like insurance. You don’t think about it until something bad happens and then you care. What’s your greatest work achievement? Shaping the online protection service in the Labs from its starting stages to where we are today. What’s your idea of happiness? Road trips and a bottle of really good beer. Which (non-work-related) talent would you most like to have? Hmmm… tough. Maybe, stock-market prediction skills? What are your favorite apps? Things Stumbleupon What blogs do you like? Security blogs (F-Secure Security blog of course and others – too many to list.) Self-Help Blogs (Zen Habits, Marc and Angel, etc.) Who do you admire most? I admire quite a few people for different reasons. Warren Buffett for his intensity, simplicity and generosity. Mikko Hyppönen for his idealism and undying dedication to the online security fight. And Mother Theresa for embodying the true meaning of how being alive is like being in school for your soul. Do you ever, ever go online without protection? Not with systems associated to me personally, or with someone else. But of course, when we are analyzing online threats, then yes. See how to take control of your online privacy – watch the film and hear more from Christine. See how Freedome VPN will keep you protected and get it now.
The Sony hack of late 2014 sent shock waves through Hollywood that rippled out into the rest of the world for months. The ironic hack of the dubious surveillance software company Hacking Team last summer showed no one is immune to a data breach - not even a company that specializes in breaking into systems. After a big hack, some of the first questions asked are how the attacker got in, and whether it could have been prevented. But today we're asking a different question: whether, once the attacker was already in the network, the breach could have been detected. And stopped. Here's why: Advanced attacks like the ones that hit Sony and Hacking Team are carried out by highly skilled attackers who specifically target a certain organization. Preventive measures block the great majority of threats out there, but advanced attackers know how to get around a company's defenses. The better preventive security a company has in place, the harder it will be to get in…but the most highly skilled, highly motivated attackers will still find a way in somehow. That's where detection comes in. Thinking like an attacker If an attacker does get through a company's defensive walls, it's critical to be able detect their presence as early as possible, to limit the damage they can do. There has been no official confirmation of when Sony's actual breach first took place, but some reports say the company had been breached for a year before the attackers froze up Sony's systems and began leaking volumes of juicy info about the studio's inner workings. That's a long time for someone to be roaming around in a network, harvesting data. So how does one detect an attacker inside a network? By thinking like an attacker. And thinking like an attacker requires having a thorough knowledge of how attackers work, to be able to spot their telltale traces and distinguish them from legitimate users. Advanced or APT (Advanced Persistent Threat) attacks differ depending on the situation and the goals of the attacker, but in general their attacks tend to follow a pattern. Once they've chosen a target company and performed reconnaissance to find out more about the company and how to best compromise it, their attacks generally cover the following phases: 1. Gain a foothold. The first step is to infect a machine within the organization. This is typically done by exploiting software vulnerabilities on servers or endpoints, or by using social engineering tactics such as phishing, spear-phishing, watering holes, or man-in-the-middle attacks. 2. Achieve persistence. The initial step must also perform some action that lets the attacker access the system later at will. This means a persistent component that creates a backdoor the attacker can re-enter through later. 3. Perform network reconnaissance. Gather information about the initial compromised system and the whole network to figure out where and how to advance in the network. 4. Lateral movement. Gain access to further systems as needed, depending on what the goal of the attack is. Steps 2-4 are then repeated as needed to gain access to the target data or system. 5. Collect target data. Identify and collect files, credentials, emails, and other forms of intercepted communications. 6. Exfiltrate target data. Copy data to the attackers via network. Steps 5 and 6 can also happen in small increments over time. In some cases these steps are augmented with sabotaging data or systems. 7. Cover tracks. Evidence of what was done and how it was done is easily erased by deleting and modifying logs and file access times. This can happen throughout the attack, not just at the end. For each phase, there are various tactics, techniques and procedures attackers use to accomplish the task as covertly as possible. Combined with an awareness and visibility of what is happening throughout the network, knowledge of these tools and techniques is what will enable companies to detect attackers in their networks and stop them in their tracks. Following the signs Sony may have been breached for a year, but signs of the attack were there all along. Perhaps these signs just weren't being watched for - or perhaps they were missed. The attackers tried to cover their tracks (step 7) with two specific tools that forged logs and file access and creation times - tools that could have been detected as being suspicious. These tools were used throughout the attack, not just at the end, so detection would have happened well before all the damage was done, saving Sony and its executives much embarrassment, difficult PR, lost productivity, and untold millions of dollars. In the case of Hacking Team, the hacker known as Phineas Fisher used a network scanner called nmap, a common network scanning tool, to gather information about the organization’s internal network and figure out how to advance the attack (step 3). Nmap activity on a company internal network should be flagged as a suspicious activity. For moving inside the network, step 4, he used methods based on the built-in Windows management framework, PowerShell, and the well-known tool psexec from SysInternals. These techniques could also potentially have been picked up on from the way they were used that would differ from a legitimate user. These are just a few examples of how a knowledge of how attackers work can be used to detect and stop them. In practice, F-Secure does this with a new service we've just launched called Rapid Detection Service. The service uses a combination of human and machine intelligence to monitor what's going on inside a company network and detect suspicious behavior. Our promise is that once we've detected a breach, we'll alert the company within 30 minutes. They'll find out about it first from us, not from the headlines. One F-Secure analyst sums it up nicely: "The goal is to make it impossible for an attacker to wiggle his way from an initial breach to his eventual goal." After all, breaches do happen. The next step, then, is to be prepared. Photo: Getty Images
Yet another big vulnerability in the headlines. The Metaphor hack was discovered by Israel-based NorthBit and can be used to take control over almost any Android device. The vulnerability can be exploited from video files that people encounter when surfing the web. It affects all versions of Android except version 6, which is the latest major version also known as Marshmallow. But why is this such a big deal? Severe vulnerabilities are found all the time and we receive updates and patches to fix them. A fast update process is as a matter of fact a cyber security cornerstone. What makes this issue severe is that it affects Android, which to a large extent lack this cornerstone. Android devices are usually not upgraded to new major versions. Google is patching vulnerabilities, but these patches’ path to the devices is long and winding. Different vendors’ practices for patching varies a lot, and many devices will never receive any. This is really a big issue as Android’s smartphone market share is about 85% and growing! How is this possible? This underlines one of the fundamental differences between the Android and iOS ecosystems. Apple’s products are planned more like the computers we are used to. They are investments and will be maintained after purchase. iOS devices receive updates, and even major system upgrades, automatically and free of charge. And most users do install them. Great for the security. Android is a different cup of tea. These devices are mostly aimed at a cheaper market segment. They are built as consumables that will be replaced quite frequently. This is no doubt a reasonable and cost-saving strategy for the vendors. They can focus on making software work on the currently shipping devices and forget about legacy models. It helps keeping the price-point down. This leads to a situation where only 2,3% of the Android users are running Marshmallow, even half a year after release. The contrast against iOS is huge. iOS 9 has been on the market about the same time and already covers 79% of the user base. Apple reported a 50% coverage just five days after release! The Android strategy backfires when bugs like Metaphor are discovered. A swift and compete patch roll-out is the only viable response, but this is not available to all. This leaves many users with two bad options, to replace the phone or to take a risk and keep using the old one. Not good. One could think that this model is disappearing as we all grow more and more aware of the cyber threats. Nope, development actually goes in the opposite direction. Small connected devices, IoT-devices, are slowly creeping into our homes and lives. And the maintenance model for these is pretty much the same as for Android. They are cheap. They are not expected to last long, and the technology is developing so fast that you would be likely to replace them anyway even if they were built to last. And on top of that, their vendors are usually more experienced in developing hardware than software. All that together makes the IoT-revolution pretty scary. Even if IoT-hacking isn’t one of the ordinary citizen’s main concerns yet. So let’s once again repeat the tree fundamental commands for being secure on-line. Use common sense, keep your device patched and use a suitable security product. If you have a system that provides regular patches and updates, keep in mind that it is a valuable service that helps keeping you safe. But it is also worth pointing out that nothing as black and white. There are unfortunately also problematic update scenarios. Safe surfing, Micke Photo by etnyk under CC