Threat report conclusion: Patch now!

h2_2012_infographic#1544C6EOur Threat report for H2 2012 is now available. Read it if you want to know what’s going on and what the threat landscape is looking like. It is interesting reading, highly recommended! If you are in a hurry and want to save the reading for later, there’s still one point that affects most users and deserves immediate attention. Vulnerabilities and patching.

One of the major trends is no doubt the increasing importance of exploits and vulnerabilities. And you have probably already heard the nagging about how important it is to patch your system. That IS good advice and our threat report shows how it is getting even more important. But I don’t want to just repeat the nagging. I want to take the opportunity to dig a bit deeper into this issue and explain what it is all about.

There are basically two ways to get malware into your computer; to trick you to install it and to utilize a vulnerability. All software in your computer is written by humans, and as we know, “mistake” is our human race’s middle name. Mistakes in computer programs are called bugs and a vulnerability is a special type of bug. Many bugs just affect the functionality of the program. Something may not work or work in an unexpected way. Applications are supposed to handle errors in a graceful way. But they may encounter erroneous data that the programmer didn’t anticipate. The application wreaks havoc and starts behaving in an unplanned way, and this may breach security. If this can happen, then there’s a vulnerability in the system.

An exploit is data that is carefully crafted by a hacker. Its purpose is to create an error that is no accident . What happens after the error is not chaotic after all; it is orchestrated by the hacker. He has at this point gained unauthorized control and the next task is to make sure that some malware is installed permanently on the system. The attacker has successfully exploited a vulnerability.

This may happen by just visiting a web page. The web page is a document that is rendered by your browser. If your browser has a vulnerability and you visit the wrong page you may be victim of a so called drive-by download. You surf the page comfortably unaware of the fact that a program silently is installed on your computer. And that’s not a friendly program!

But I have bought an antivirus program for good money. Doesn’t that protect me? Yes, that’s good. But we still recommend that you pay attention to patches as well. Your security product will detect and block malware that is about to execute. It will monitor your file transfers over the net and block harmful content. It will even check what sites you surf and warn when entering hostile territory. And if all that fails, executing programs are watched for suspicious behavior. But all this is a cat and mouse game. The bad guys come up with new clever tricks to circumvent all these layers and the security researchers upgrade the product to cope with them. If you are unlucky you can hit malware that your product can’t cope with yet. Remember that no product will ever give you 100% protection no matter what the sleek marketoids are claiming! But you are still fine if you have patched the vulnerability that the bad guys try to exploit. The malware has to go through that bottleneck so why not plug the hole? It can’t be done by your security vendor; it must be done by the vendor of the affected software. Your security suite can just build layers of security around the hole, but not correct errors in other products.

OK, I’m convinced. I want to start patching my system now. But how? One problem is that you probably have software from several vendors on your system. They all have to produce patches for their own product and there is no single outlet that would provide patches for all vendors. That’s one of the reasons why we have made F-Secure Safe Check . This free tool checks the security of your system from several different angles; your patching status is one of them. And you will get instructions about how to patch if that is needed. Why not run it right away!

Micke

PS. Some definitions: (Source: Wikipedia)

Vulnerability
“In computer security, a vulnerability is a weakness which allows an attacker to reduce a system’s information assurance.”

Exploit
“An exploit (from the verb to exploit, in the meaning of using something to one’s own advantage) is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug, glitch or vulnerability in order to cause unintended or unanticipated behaviour to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerised).”

Patch
A patch is a piece of software designed to fix problems with, or update a computer program or its supporting data. This includes fixing security vulnerabilities and other bugs, and improving the usability or performance.”

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Christine Bejerasco

Meet the Online Guardian Working to Keep You Safe

Every time you go online, your personal privacy is at risk – it’s as simple as that. Whether you’re creating an account on a website, shopping, or just browsing, information like your email, IP address and browsing history are potential targets for interested parties.   All too often, that information is sold on or sometimes even stolen without you even knowing it. And the threats to our online privacy and security are evolving. Fast.   As F-Secure’s Online Protection Service Lead, Christine Bejerasco’s job is to make life online safer and more secure.   “We’re basically online defenders. And when your job is to create solutions that help protect people, the criminals and attackers you’re protecting them against always step up their game. So it’s like an arms race. They come up with new ways of attacking users and our job is to outsmart them and defend our users,” Christine says.   Sounds pretty dramatic, right? Well that’s because it is. While it used to be that the biggest threat to your online privacy was spam and viruses, the risks of today and tomorrow are potentially way more serious.   “Right now we’re in the middle of different waves of ransomware. That’s basically malware that turns people’s files into formats they can’t use. We’ve already seen cases of companies and individual people having their systems and files hijacked for ransom. It’s serious stuff and in many cases very sad. If your online assets aren’t protected right now you should kind of feel like you’re going to bed at night with your front door not only unlocked but wide open.”   Christine and her team of 11 online security superheroes (eight full-time members and three super-talented interns) are on the case in Helsinki.   Here’s more on Christine and her work in her own words:   Where are you from? The Philippines   Where do you live and work? I live in Espoo and work at F-Secure in Ruoholahti, Helsinki.   Describe your job in 160 characters or less? Online guardian who strives to give F-Secure users a worry-free online experience.   One word that best describes your work? Engaging   How long is a typical work day for you? There is no typical workday. It ranges from 6 – 13 hours, depending on what’s happening.   What sparked your interest in online security? At the start it was just a job. As a computer science graduate, I was just looking for a job where I could do something related to my field. And then when I joined a software security company in the Philippines, I was introduced to this world of online threats and it’s really hard to leave all the excitement behind. So I’ve stayed in the industry ever since.   Craziest story you’ve ever heard about online protection breach? Ashley Madison. Some people thought it was just a funny story, but it had pretty serious consequences for some of the people on that list.   Does it frustrate you that so many people don’t care about protecting their online privacy? Yeah, it definitely does. But you grow to understand that people don’t value things until they lose it. It’s like insurance. You don’t think about it until something bad happens and then you care.   What’s your greatest work achievement? Shaping the online protection service in the Labs from its starting stages to where we are today.   What’s your idea of happiness? Road trips and a bottle of really good beer.   Which (non-work-related) talent would you most like to have? Hmmm… tough. Maybe, stock-market prediction skills?   What are your favorite apps? Things Stumbleupon   What blogs do you like? Security blogs (F-Secure Security blog of course and others – too many to list.) Self-Help Blogs (Zen Habits, Marc and Angel, etc.)   Who do you admire most? I admire quite a few people for different reasons. Warren Buffett for his intensity, simplicity and generosity. Mikko Hyppönen for his idealism and undying dedication to the online security fight. And Mother Theresa for embodying the true meaning of how being alive is like being in school for your soul.   Do you ever, ever go online without protection? Not with systems associated to me personally, or with someone else. But of course, when we are analyzing online threats, then yes.   See how to take control of your online privacy – watch the film and hear more from Christine.  See how Freedome VPN will keep you protected and get it now.

July 14, 2016
BY 
Porn blog post image

4 People who can see what Porn you Watch, and 4 Tips to Stop it

In the grand scheme of things, there certainly are more important facets to online privacy than keeping one’s porn habits private (government overreach, identity theft, credit card fraud to name a few). However, adult browsing histories are one of the secrets in their online lives people want to protect the most, so it might be disconcerting to know that porn browsing is not as private as one might think. A large majority of web users are lulled into a false sense of security by incognito mode or private browsing, but this is only one of the steps needed toward becoming private online. Here are a few people who have access to this info, along  with a few easy tips that can be taken to prevent this from happening. 1. Anyone on the same hotspot No one is suggesting you should watch porn at your local coffee shop (in fact, please don’t). However, what people surf in places like the privacy of their hotel room should probably stay there. With that in mind, the following statement might be more than a little disconcerting: What you do on Wi-Fi can be usually be seen by pretty much anyone connected to that hotspot. It doesn't require great hacking skills to see what other people connected to the same network are doing. Only traffic on encrypted websites starting with https is always secure, and almost no adult sites fall under this category. 2. Foreign web service providers When traveling, it's easy to forget that what might be culturally acceptable in one country can land you in hot water with the authorities in another. Whether on public Wi-Fi or roaming on the network of a foreign internet service provider, they may be bound by law to report anyone surfing adult material. The personal freedom we enjoy to surf anything we want online is so second nature to many of us by now, we easily forget the same isn't true for others. 3. Analytics and advertisers (often one and the same) It might not bee too surprising to hear that most companies aren't exactly jumping at the chance to be associated with adult websites. For this reason, networks that serve ads to adult websites don't serve ads to "normal" websites, making porn sites mostly self-contained when it comes to using your private information for advertising purposes. Unfortunately, your adult browsing can still be connected to you. Many adult websites implement analytic services, as well as "like" and "share" buttons, that feed into major advertisers such as Google and Facebook. 4. Your employer (in the U.S. and many other countries) Now, we are DEFINITELY not suggesting you watch naughty stuff at work. I mean, they call it NSFW for a reason. However, that doesn’t change the fact that in some countries, companies have an uncomfortable amount of rights to spy on their workers. It’s natural that employers don’t want their workers doing anything illegal, but you still have a right to privacy, even on a work network. What are your options? So what can you do to prevent privacy intrusions? The first and most obvious choice is to not supply any personal information to adult websites. A lot of porn sites require registration in order to comment on videos (if that's your thing) or to view content in higher quality. Keeping a separate email address for adult websites is therefore highly recommended. The other obvious choice is to always have private browsing on, as this prevents cookie-based tracking and embarrassing browsing histories from being saved on your computer. A slightly more technical but still very easy tip is to disable JavaScript from your browser settings while surfing adult websites. A lot of websites don't function without JavaScript, but all the adult websites we tried for research purposes work just fine. JavaScript makes it much easier  to do something called device fingerprinting. This frustratingly intrusive method of snooping involves the use of scripts to identify your computer based on variables such as your screen size, operating system and number of installed fonts. It might not seem like it, but there are enough variables to make most devices in the world completely unique. But the simplest and most efficient method of controlling your privacy is to use a VPN. A VPN (virtual private network) encrypts all your traffic, meaning no one is able to intercept it and see what sites you visit or what you download. It also hides your real IP address, the unique number which can easily be used to identify you online. A top-tier VPN like Freedome also contains extra features like anti-tracking to stop advertising networks from identifying you, and malware protection to automatically block webpages that contain malicious code. The app is easy to use, and available on most platforms. Online privacy is not a difficult or expensive  goal to achieve, and by following these few steps you will be able to surf what you want without worry.

June 13, 2016
BY 
Could the Sony and Hacking Team hacks have been detected sooner?

Hacks in the Headlines: Two Huge Breaches That Could Have Been Detected

The Sony hack of late 2014 sent shock waves through Hollywood that rippled out into the rest of the world for months. The ironic hack of the dubious surveillance software company Hacking Team last summer showed no one is immune to a data breach - not even a company that specializes in breaking into systems. After a big hack, some of the first questions asked are how the attacker got in, and whether it could have been prevented. But today we're asking a different question: whether, once the attacker was already in the network, the breach could have been detected. And stopped. Here's why: Advanced attacks like the ones that hit Sony and Hacking Team are carried out by highly skilled attackers who specifically target a certain organization. Preventive measures block the great majority of threats out there, but advanced attackers know how to get around a company's defenses. The better preventive security a company has in place, the harder it will be to get in…but the most highly skilled, highly motivated attackers will still find a way in somehow. That's where detection comes in. Thinking like an attacker If an attacker does get through a company's defensive walls, it's critical to be able detect their presence as early as possible, to limit the damage they can do. There has been no official confirmation of when Sony's actual breach first took place, but some reports say the company had been breached for a year before the attackers froze up Sony's systems and began leaking volumes of juicy info about the studio's inner workings. That's a long time for someone to be roaming around in a network, harvesting data. So how does one detect an attacker inside a network? By thinking like an attacker. And thinking like an attacker requires having a thorough knowledge of how attackers work, to be able to spot their telltale traces and distinguish them from legitimate users. Advanced or APT (Advanced Persistent Threat) attacks differ depending on the situation and the goals of the attacker, but in general their attacks tend to follow a pattern. Once they've chosen a target company and performed reconnaissance to find out more about the company and how to best compromise it, their attacks generally cover the following phases: 1. Gain a foothold. The first step is to infect a machine within the organization. This is typically done by exploiting software vulnerabilities on servers or endpoints, or by using social engineering tactics such as phishing, spear-phishing, watering holes, or man-in-the-middle attacks. 2. Achieve persistence. The initial step must also perform some action that lets the attacker access the system later at will. This means a persistent component that creates a backdoor the attacker can re-enter through later. 3. Perform network reconnaissance. Gather information about the initial compromised system and the whole network to figure out where and how to advance in the network. 4. Lateral movement. Gain access to further systems as needed, depending on what the goal of the attack is. Steps 2-4 are then repeated as needed to gain access to the target data or system. 5. Collect target data. Identify and collect files, credentials, emails, and other forms of intercepted communications. 6. Exfiltrate target data. Copy data to the attackers via network. Steps 5 and 6 can also happen in small increments over time. In some cases these steps are augmented with sabotaging data or systems. 7. Cover tracks. Evidence of what was done and how it was done is easily erased by deleting and modifying logs and file access times. This can happen throughout the attack, not just at the end. For each phase, there are various tactics, techniques and procedures attackers use to accomplish the task as covertly as possible. Combined with an awareness and visibility of what is happening throughout the network, knowledge of these tools and techniques is what will enable companies to detect attackers in their networks and stop them in their tracks. Following the signs Sony may have been breached for a year, but signs of the attack were there all along. Perhaps these signs just weren't being watched for - or perhaps they were missed. The attackers tried to cover their tracks (step 7) with two specific tools that forged logs and file access and creation times - tools that could have been detected as being suspicious. These tools were used throughout the attack, not just at the end, so detection would have happened well before all the damage was done, saving Sony and its executives much embarrassment, difficult PR, lost productivity, and untold millions of dollars. In the case of Hacking Team, the hacker known as Phineas Fisher used a network scanner called nmap, a common network scanning tool, to gather information about the organization’s internal network and figure out how to advance the attack (step 3). Nmap activity on a company internal network should be flagged as a suspicious activity. For moving inside the network, step 4, he used methods based on the built-in Windows management framework, PowerShell, and the well-known tool psexec from SysInternals. These techniques could also potentially have been picked up on from the way they were used that would differ from a legitimate user. These are just a few examples of how a knowledge of how attackers work can be used to detect and stop them. In practice, F-Secure does this with a new service we've just launched called Rapid Detection Service. The service uses a combination of human and machine intelligence to monitor what's going on inside a company network and detect suspicious behavior. Our promise is that once we've detected a breach, we'll alert the company within 30 minutes. They'll find out about it first from us, not from the headlines. One F-Secure analyst sums it up nicely: "The goal is to make it impossible for an attacker to wiggle his way from an initial breach to his eventual goal." After all, breaches do happen. The next step, then, is to be prepared.   Photo: Getty Images

May 31, 2016
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