Your account will be closed in 24h!

Yahoo phishing

Thursday night and checking Facebook on my mobile before going to sleep. One of my friends is complaining about how hard it is to use Yahoo mail abroad. Problem logging in and now there’s some problem with the account. “Your E-mail account has exceeded its limit and needs to be verified, if not verified within 24 hours, we shall suspend your account. Click Here to verify your email account now.” And when you try to resolve it, it doesn’t even work. You just end up on the login page! Damn Yahoo!

Stop! This message is not about a problem with the mail system, it’s a very typical phishing mail. I responded with a warning, and yes, the link had indeed been clicked and the credentials entered on a page that looked like the Yahoo login page. That made my friend a phishing victim like so many other Internet users. It was the beginning of a long night trying to figure out how to change the mail password using a tiny mobile screen. But the case came to a happy end. The password was apparently changed before the attackers had a chance to take benefit from the account, thanks to the swift reaction.

How to spot a phishing attempt?

  • It arrives as a mail message. Mail can be sent by anyone and it is trivial to spoof the sender’s address so that it seems to come from your mail operator or some other company you trust.
  • People think less when they are afraid so it tries to create a sense of danger. Something bad will happen unless you react. The closure of your account is a very common threat when phishing for e-mail accounts.
  • People think less when in a hurry so it tries to create a sense of urgency. You need to act right now. This lowers the risk that the victim checks out the facts first. The 24h deadline is a typical trick to achieve this.
  • It links to a web page that looks like an official page of, for example,  your mail operator. But it is actually controlled by the attacker, who also receives any information you enter. You are hacked if you enter your mail user name and password, or other valuable information.

My friend is not a computer newbie, and did in theory know all this. But the attack succeeded anyway. How is this possible? Imagine that it is late in the night and you are tired. There are other people distracting you. You are traveling and really depending on your mail account. And on top of that, you have had problems and expect even more trouble with this operator. So this is a very typical situation where the fingers can be faster than the brains. This is really the optimal situation for an attacker to hit, and they happened to send this phishing mail at the right wrong time.  Honestly, are you sure this couldn’t happen to you?

Ok, so what should I do to avoid being phished?

  • First of all, do not click links in mails! This is not just about phishing, many get malware too by clicking links. But there are also legitimate links that friends send to you. So you should always think about who the sender is (remember, the apparent sender can be spoofed), in what style and language the message is written, what the claimed content of the link is and how does all this fit together? To summarize, do I expect this kind of message from this person (or company) at this time? This way you should be able to spot the legit links.
  • If in doubt, check what address the link is taking you to before you click. Note that the text forming the visible part of the link may look like a web URL but still be linked to a totally different address. Hover the mouse pointer over the link and examine the address that the mail client or browser shows you. Make sure that the address match the company or site that the link is claimed to point to. For example: The login to Gmail should start with “” but a phishing site targeting Gmail may use an address like “”. The latter does NOT belong to Gmail.
  • Get familiar with the login URLs of your favorite services BEFORE you run into a phishing mail. Then it is a lot easier to spot the spoof. The address may look long and nerdy, but you only need to mind the part after the double-slash “//” but before the first single slash. That part identifies the server that you will access. (Your browser may show the address without the initial “http://”, in that case just examine the part before the first slash.)
  • Get familiar with the concept of secured web pages and how to recognize them. Login pages of important services are typically protected this way. Their addresses start with “https://” instead of “http://” and your browser shows a lock or similar symbol next to the address field. You can examine the certificate of the server you are connected to by clicking the lock, and this is reasonable hard proof about who’s running the service. Needless to say, the phishing sites can’t duplicate these cryptographic certificates.
  • If you suspect that there really may be a problem with your mail account, then log in with the link that you normally use to access the account. Do not use a link in a mail message. Look for info banners and pop-up messages shown in the browser after you have logged in. These messages are a lot more reliable and can generally be trusted. Mail operators are well aware of the phishing threat. If you get a mail claiming that there’s a problem, then you can be pretty sure that it isn’t true. The mail operators do not communicate in that way.
  • If you still fall for the scam, attempt to change your password right away. This is also a good time to think about if you have used the same password on other services. Say that is using the same password as If one get hacked, then the hacker just need to try some of the common mail services to get access to more accounts. This would be a good time to brush up your password practices.

As a practice, examine the link above and try to figure out where it points and what company it belongs to without clicking it.

Safe surfing,

Phishing @ Wikipedia.

Phishing is the act of attempting to acquire information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and sometimes, indirectly, money) by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Communications purporting to be from popular social web sites, auction sites, online payment processors or IT administrators are commonly used to lure the unsuspecting public.

More posts from this topic

The Dukes

“The Dukes” – Ask the Experts

Last week, F-Secure Labs published a new study that provides a detailed analysis of a hacking group called “the Dukes”. The Dukes are what’s known as an advanced persistent threat (APT) – a type of hacking campaign in which a group of attackers is able to covertly infiltrate an organization’s IT network and steal data, often over a long period of time while remaining undetected. The report provides a comprehensive analysis of the Dukes’ history, and provides evidence that security researchers and analysts say proves the various attacks discussed in the report are attributable to the Duke group. Furthermore, the new information contained in the report strengthens previous claims that the group is operating with support from the Russian government. Mikko Hypponen has said that attacker attribution is important, but it’s also complex and notoriously difficult, so the findings of the report have considerable security implications. I contacted several people familiar with the report to get some additional insights into the Dukes, the research, and what this information means to policy makers responsible for issues pertaining to national cybersecurity. Artturi Lehtiö (AL) is the F-Secure Researcher who headed the investigation and authored the report. He has published previous research on attacks that are now understood to have been executed by the Dukes. Patrik Maldre (PM) is a Junior Research Fellow at the International Center for Defense and Security, and has previously written about the Dukes, and the significance of this threat for global security. Mika Aaltola (MA) is the Program Director for the Global Security research program at the Finnish Institute for International Affairs. He published an article of his own examining how groups like the Dukes fit into the geopolitical ambitions of nations that employ them.   Q: What is the one thing that people must absolutely know about the Dukes? PM: They are using their capabilities in pursuit of Russian strategic interests, including economic and political domination in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the Caucasus region, and a return to higher status at the international level. AL: They are a long-standing key part of Russian espionage activity in the cyber domain. MA: The geopolitical intention behind the vast majority of targets. Q: We now know the Dukes are responsible for a number of high profile attacks, and seemingly target information about politics and defense. But what kind of information might they obtain with their attacks, and why would it be valuable? AL: They might obtain information like meeting notes, memos, plans, and internal reports, not to mention email conversations. In essence, the Dukes aim to be a fly on the wall behind the closed doors of cabinets, meeting rooms, and negotiating tables. PM: The targets of the Dukes include government ministries, militaries, political think tanks, and parliaments. The information that can be gained from these organizations includes, among other things, sensitive communication among high-level officials, details of future political postures, data about strategic arms procurement plans, compromising accounts of ongoing intelligence operations, positions regarding current diplomatic negotiations, future positioning of strategic military contingents, plans for future economic investments, and internal debates about policies such as sanctions. MA: The targets are high value assets. Two things are important: data concerning the plans and decisions taken by the targeted organizations. Second, who is who in the organizations, what are the key decision-making networks, what possible weaknesses can be used and exploited, and how the organization can be used to gain access to other organizations. Q: The Dukes are typically classified as an APT. What makes the Dukes different from other APTs? MA: APT is a good term to use with the Dukes. However, there are some specific characteristics. The multi-year campaigning with relatively simple tools sets Dukes apart from e.g. Stuxnet. Also, the Dukes are used in psychological warfare. The perpetrators can even benefit from they actions becoming public as long as some deniability remains. AL: The sophistication of the Dukes does not come as much from the sophistication of their own methods as it comes from their understanding of their targets’ methods, what their targets’ weaknesses are, and how those can be exploited. PM: They are among the most capable, aggressive, and determined actors that have been publicly identified to be serving Russian strategic interests. The Dukes provide a very wide array of different capabilities that can be chosen based on the targets, objectives, and constraints of a particular operation. They appear to be acting in a brazen manner that indicates complete confidence in their immunity from law enforcement or domestic oversight by democratic bodies. Q: There are 9 distinctive Duke toolsets. Why would a single group need 9 different malware toolsets instead of just 1? AL: The Dukes attempt to use their wide arsenal of tools to stay one-step ahead of the defenders by frequently switching the toolset used. MA: They are constantly developing the tools and using them for different targets. Its an evolutionary process meant to trick different “immunity” systems. Much like drug cocktails can trick the HIV virus. PM: The different Duke toolsets provide flexibility and can be used to complement each other. For example, if various members of the Dukes are used to compromise a particular target and the infection is discovered, the incident responders may be led to believe that quarantines and remediation have been successful even though another member of the Dukes is still able to extract valuable information. Q: Many people reading this aren’t involved in geopolitics. What do you think non-policy makers can take away from this whitepaper? AL: This research aims to provide a unique window into the world of the Dukes, allowing people not traditionally involved with governmental espionage or hacking to gauge for themselves how their lives may be affected by activity like the Dukes. PM: It is important for people to understand the threats that are associated with these technological developments. The understanding of cybersecurity should grow to the point where it is on par with the wider public’s understanding of other aspects of international security, such as military strategy or nuclear non-proliferation. This knowledge is relevant for the exercise of fundamental liberties that are enjoyed in democratic societies, including freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of association, as well as of basic rights such as voting in elections. MA: The geopolitical intent is clearly present in this activity. However, the developments in this realm affects other types of cyber-attacks. Same methods spread. There is cross-fertilization, as in the case of Stuxnet that was soon adapted for other purposes by other groups.   F-Secure’s Business Security Insider blog recently posted a quick breakdown on how the Dukes typically execute their attacks, and what people can do to prevent becoming a victim of the Dukes or similar threats. Check it out for some additional information about the Dukes.

September 22, 2015
graveyard, RIP Flash, Is Flash dead

RIP Flash? Has Chrome signed Flash’s death warrant?

The first day of September may go down in internet security history -- and not just because it's the day when F-Secure Labs announced that its blog, which was the first antivirus industry blog ever, has moved to a new home. It's also the day that Google's Chrome began blocking flash ads from immediately loading, with the goal of moving advertisers to develop their creative in HTML5. Google is joining Amazon, whose complete rejection of Flash ads also begins on September 1. "This is a very good move on Amazon’s part and hopefully other companies will follow suit sooner than later," F-Secure Security Advisor Sean Sullivan wrote in August when Amazon made its announcement. "Flash-based ads are now an all-too-common security risk. Everybody will be better off without them." Last month, Adobe issued its 12th update in 2015 for the software addressing security and stability concerns. An estimated 90 percent of rich media ads are delivered through Flash. Having the world's largest online retailer reject your ad format is a significant nudge away from the plugin. But it would be difficult to overstate the impact of Chrome actively encouraging developers to drop Flash. About 1 out of every 2 people, 51.74 percent, who access the internet through a desktop browser do it via Chrome, according to StatCounter. This makes it the world's most popular web interface by far.   Facebook's Chief Security Officer has also recently called for the end of Flash and YouTube moved away from the format by default in January. “Newer technologies are available and becoming more popular anyway, so it would really be worth the effort to just speed up the adoption of newer, more secure technologies, and stop using Flash completely," F-Secure Senior Researcher Timo Hirvonen told our Business Insider blog. So what's keeping Flash alive? Massive adoption and advertisers. “Everyone in every agency’s creative department grew up using Adobe’s creative suite, so agencies still have deep benches of people who specialize in this,”Media Kitchen managing partner Josh Engroff told Digiday. “Moving away from it means new training and calibration.” And Flash does have some advantages over the format that seems fated to replace it. "HTML5 ads may be more beautiful, and are perceived to be more secure, but the files can be a lot larger than Flash," Business Insider's Laura O'Reilly wrote. In markets, stability can breed instability and it seems that our familiarity and reliance on Flash has resulted in unnecessary insecurity for our data. Has Flash hit its moment when its dominance rapidly evaporates? We can have hope. "I sincerely hope this is the end of Flash," Timo told us. Cheers, Sandra [Image by Sean MacEntee | Flickr]    

September 1, 2015