future of cyber warfare

3 questions about the future of cyber warfare

“We’re not creative enough when we imagine cyber warfare,” F-Secure Security Advisor Sean Sullivan recently told me. “It’s not kinetic explosions. It could be a guy whose crimeware business has dried up and is looking for new business.”

Over the last week, F-Secure Labs has taken a look at attacks from the “Energetic Bear” hacking group, Havex, which targets the energy sector, and now CosmicDuke, which is aimed at targets in Ukraine, Poland, Turkey, and Russia.

The goal of these attacks seems to be espionage or gathering information up for a buyer, which could be a government. But the methods don’t match the precision and massive investment of manhours that went into an attack like Stuxnet, which was designed to take down Iran’s nuclear capabilities.

“They rely on plausible deniability and using resources that don’t seem to be created specifically for the task,” Sean said. “It matches the modular methodology of what we conventionally think of as crimeware.”

“You look at one element and it looks like crimeware,” said F-Secure Senior Researcher Timo Hirvonen, who wrote the CosmicDuke analysis. “You look at it from a different angle and you say, ‘I’ve never seen it aimed like that before.'”

“The conventional wisdom is that anything related to cyber warfare will be shiny and new,” Sean said. These attacks instead suggest “semi-professionalism”.

Here are three questions Sean is pondering in the wake these attacks:

What do we mean when we say state-sponsored?

“Cyber warfare models real life,” Sean said.  “Some countries have a massive cyber intelligence infrastructure that works from the top down. Others seem to have a more grassroots origin, co-opting existing technologies that seem to be built on existing crimeware.”

He wonders if state-focused campaigns are using malware that isn’t necessarily state-sponsored. “Countries who use troops with black masks and no insignias standing on a peninsula may have the same kind of thing going online.”

Opportunistic and pragmatic governments may be paying people to co-opting technology that exist for international espionage purposes.

He suggests the goals of such attacks may fit into Sun Tzu’s advice from The Art of War: know your enemy.

Armed with information, countries can use soft power to turn allies against each other and dissuade retribution like economic sanctions.

What do we mean by APT — advanced persistent threat?

These attacks are not complex in the way Stuxnet was. And they don’t need to be.

CosmicDuke  — a variant of a malware family that has existed since 2001–  infects by tricking targets into opening either a PDF file which contains an exploit or a Windows executable whose filename makes it look like a document or image file.

Once the target opens the malicious file, CosmicDuke gains access starts collecting information with a keylogger, clipboard stealer, screenshotter, and password stealers for a variety of popular chat, e-mail and web browsing programs. CosmicDuke also collects information about the files on the system, and has the capability to export cryptographic certificates and their private keys. Once the information has been collected, it is sent out to remote servers via FTP. In addition to stealing information from the system, CosmicDuke allows the attacker to download and execute other malware on the system. Pretty standard stuff.

Is the war against crimeware driving criminals to cyber espionage? Or: Could be fighting cybercrime be counterproductive?

“Some of these guys may be working for the government and themselves,” Sean said.

A wave of successes in the international war on cybercrime may be driving criminals to new buyers.

“The talent developed on its own,” he said. “And now there’s a government taking advantage of talent in their borders. Law enforcement has been going after crimeware. But it doesn’t go away. It’s fungible. The talent’s still there it needs to make a buck.”

Sean believes there’s a message in these attacks for everyone.

“It’s not just the NSA that hunts system admins. If you have any sort of credentialed access to important systems, you are a target. Keep calm and secure your stuff.”

He hopes that businesses will recognize that prevention is always the best remedy.

“For IT managers: ask for the security budget you need – and fight for it. There is more evidence than ever that letting cost dictate security is bad management.”

If governments are willing to work with increasingly opportunistic malware authors, risks could grow exponentially.

“Is today’s crimeware botnet, tomorrow’s national security nightmare?” Sean asks. “What happens when these guys get out of jail? I’m sure they won’t let the talent go fallow.”

Cheers,

Sandra

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How “the Cloud” Keeps you Safe

“The cloud” is a big thing nowadays. It’s not exactly a new concept, but tech companies are relying on it more and more. Many online services that people enjoy use the cloud to one extent or another, and this includes security software. Cloud computing offers unique security benefits, and F-Secure recently updated F-Secure SAFE to take better advantage of F-Secure’s Security Cloud. It combines cloud-based scanning with F-Secure’s award-winning device-based security technology, giving you a more comprehensive form of protection. Using the cloud to supplement device-based scanning provides immediate, up-to-date information about threats. Device-based scanning, which is the traditional way of identifying malware, examines files against a database saved on the device to determine whether or not a file is malicious. This is a backbone of online protection, so it’s a vital part of F-Secure SAFE. Cloud-based scanning enhances this functionality by checking files against malware information in both the local database found on devices, and a centralized database saved in the cloud. When a new threat is detected by anyone connected to the cloud, it is immediately identified and becomes "known" within the cloud. This ensures that new threats are identified quickly and everyone has immediate access to the information, eliminating the need to update the database on devices when a new threat is discovered. Plus, cloud-based scanning makes actual apps easier to run. This is particularly important on mobile devices, as heavy anti-virus solutions can drain the battery life and other resources of devices. F-Secure SAFE’s Android app has now been updated with an “Ultralight” anti-virus engine. It uses the cloud to take the workload from the devices, and is optimized to scan apps and files with a greater degree of efficiency. Relying on the cloud gives you more battery life, and keeps you safer. The latest F-Secure SAFE update also brings Network Checker to Windows PC users. Network Checker is a device-based version of F-Secure’s popular Router Checker tool. It checks the Internet configuration your computer uses to connect to the Internet. Checking your configuration, as opposed to just your device, helps protect you from attacks that target home network appliances like routers – a threat not detected by traditional anti-virus products. So the cloud is offering people much more than just extra storage space. You can click here to try F-Secure SAFE for a free 30-day trial if you’re interested in learning how F-Secure is using the cloud to help keep people safe. [Image by Perspecsys Photos | Flickr]

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money, burnt, online, internet, scams

The 5 Internet scams your kid or mom is most likely to fall for

There wouldn't be billions people online every moment of every day if everyone was getting scammed all the time. Online security is, in many ways, better than ever, as are the sites designed to attract our attention. But exploits and the crooks that want to exploit us still exist, enjoying advanced malware-as-service models proven to steal our data, time and money. And with the awesome number of people online, scams only need to work a tiny percentage of the time to make the bad guys rich. We're sure you're savvy enough to avoid most trouble. But for everyone else you know, here are 5 common scams to look out for. 1. Ransomware. This scam, which F-Secure Labs has been tracking for over 5 years, prospers because it offers incredible returns -- to the scammer. "It estimated it would cost $5,900 (£3,860) to buy a ransomware kit that could return up to $90,000 in one month of operation," the BBC reports. It works like this. You suddenly get a message saying that your files are being held and you need to pay a ransom to release them. Sometimes the scam pretends to be from a police organization to make them extra scary: Anonymous cyber-currencies like bitcoin have made the scam even more appealing. "That's what really enabled the ransomware problem to explode," our Mikko Hypponen said. "Once the criminals were able to collect their ransom without getting caught, nothing was stopping them." They really do take your files and they generally will give them back. Ironically, their reputation matters since people will stop paying if they hear it won't work. Mikko recommends four ways to defend yourself from this -- and almost every scam: Always backup your important files. Ensure software is up-to-date. Be suspicious of message attachments and links in email. Always run updated comprehensive security software. He adds, "Don't pay money to these clowns unless you absolutely have to." 2. Technical support scams. "In a recent twist, scam artists are using the phone to try to break into your computer," reports the U.S. Federal Trade Commission. "They call, claiming to be computer techs associated with well-known companies like Microsoft. They say that they’ve detected viruses or other malware on your computer to trick you into giving them remote access or paying for software you don’t need." Never give anyone who calls you unsolicited your private information or access to your computer. As a matter a fact, don't do that even if the call is solicited. If you feel the call may actually important, ask who they are calling from and then contact the organization directly. For more tips visit the FTC site. 3. Facebook freebies. Free iPad! Free vacation! Free gift card! If it's free, it's on Facebook and it comes from someone you do not know or trust directly, assume it's a scam. At best it's a waste of your time, at worst it could end up costing you money. Unfortunately, there are only two things you can do to avoid these scams. Don't follow people who share crap like this on Facebook and don't click on things that seem too good to be true. "There is no way a company can afford to give every Facebook user a $25.00, $50.00 or $100.00 gift card," Facecrooks, a site that monitors these scams, reminds you. "A little common sense here tells you that something is way off base." So be suspicious of everything on Facebook. Even friends asking for money. 4. Loan scams. Scammers are smart. They know that the more a person is in financial need, the more desperate she or he becomes. For this reason, loans of various kinds -- especially mortgages that are in foreclosure -- are often lures for a scam. Once they have your attention, they may use a variety of tactics to dupe you, the FTC explains. They may demand a fee to renegotiate your loans for lower payments or to do an "audit" of what you're paying. It may even go far enough that they'll ask you directly or trick you into signing over your house to ease the pressure from your creditors. There are many warning signs to look out for. Keep in mind that if you're ever in doubt, the best step is to back off and seek advice. You can also tell the person you're going to get a second opinion on this from a lawyer. If the person you're dealing with insists that you not or freaks out in any other way, it's a good sign you're being taken. 5. Money mule scams. These scams are a variation on the 419 scams where a foreign prince asks you to hold money for him. All you have to do is wire him some first. But in this case you may actually get the money and be used as a tool of organized crime. A money mule illegally transfers money for someone in exchange for some of the take. Many law-abiding people get drawn into this crime while searching for jobs or romance, which is why your should stick to legitimate sites if you're seeking either of those things. Greed and the lure lottery winnings and inheritances is also used as a lure for potential victims. Trust is the most important thing on the internet. Anyone who trusts you too quickly with offers of money or love is probably scamming you. Cheers, Sandra [Image by epSos .de | Flickr]

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